An antidote is a drug or a chelating substance that counteracts the effects of another drug or a poison
COMMON ANTIDOTES INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING:
ACETYLCYSTEINE: Has hepatoprotective effect. Used in acetaminophen (paracetamol) overdose/toxicity, thereby preventing liver damage or failure. Cysteine (an amino acid) helps in the synthesis of glutathione, an essential intracellular antioxidant, which protects the liver from free radicals and intracellular toxins. Acetylcysteine is also a mucolytic agent that loosens thick mucus secretions in patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
ACTIVATED CHARCOAL: It is used to treat drug toxicity or poisoning. Due to its large surface area, it has the capacity to bind to toxins or poisons, thus reversing their adverse effects
ATROPINE: It is used to treat organophosphate pesticide poisoning.
DEFEROXAMINE: Used in iron or aluminum toxicity/overdose. It chelates or binds to excess iron and aluminum, thus causing their removal from the body.
DIGIBIND: Also known as Digoxin immune fab (antigen binding fragments) or Digoxin-specific antibody. It is used to treat digoxin toxicity, hence, reversing the adverse effects of digoxin overdose
DIMERCAPROL: For arsenic, gold, or inorganic mercury poisoning.
FLUMAZENIL: A selective benzodiazepines (diazepam, lorazepam, bromazepam, midazolam) antagonist. It is used in benzodiazepines overdose/toxicity.
GLUCAGON: Used to treat overdose or toxicity of beta-blockers (propranolol, metoprolol) and calcium channel blockers (nifedipine, nimodipine, amlodipine). It acts by directly increasing cardiac inotropy and increasing hepatic gluconeogenesis.
METHYLENE BLUE: For drug-induced methemoglobinemia.
NALOXONE: It is an opioid antagonist. It is used in opioid toxicity to reverse the adverse effects of opioid overdose by binding to opioid receptors.
PROTAMINE SULPHATE: Used to reverse the anticoagulant effect of heparin (that is, it is used in heparin overdose). It is derived from fish sperm, and it binds to heparin to form a stable salt.
VITAMIN K: Antidote for warfarin overdose/toxicity. It helps to reverse high INR (International Normalized Ratio) values in warfarin overdose.